FAQ [Frequently Asked Question]

What are the four 4 types of risk in the aviation industry?
Four Identified Categories for Operational Risk at Airlines
Loss of Control in Flight (LOC-I); Runway Safety; Fatigue Risk Management; andControlled Flight into Terrain (CFIT).
Why is AC current used in aircraft?
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There are many benefits of AC power when selected over DC power for aircraft electrical systems. AC can be transmitted over long distances more readily and more economically than DC, since AC voltages can be increased or decreased by means of transformers.
Why is safety important in aviation?
To keep passengers and flight crew safe while flying, Safety always comes first. Aviation safety is important because there are lives involved in every operation of aircraft. Safety must be the number one priority for any airline in all aspects of air transportation.
What are the issues in aviation industry?
Most flights seem full, terminals are always congested, and more importantly, the skies are overcrowded with the excessive number of aircraft. Air traffic and airport congestion are major challenges faced by the airline market, which seem to have no feasible solution, at least in the immediate future
Why is safety important in aviation?
 To keep passengers and flight crew safe while flying, Safety always comes first. Aviation safety is important because there are lives involved in every operation of aircraft. Safety must be the number one priority for any airline in all aspects of air transportation.
Why preflight is important?
Preflight Assessment of the Aircraft
The visual preflight assessment is an important step in mitigating airplane flight hazards. The purpose of the preflight assessment is to ensure that the airplane meets regulatory airworthiness standards and is in a safe mechanical condition prior to flight.
Who is the father of aviation?
December 17, 1903, marks what is arguably the most important day in our industry's history. On this day, 117 years ago, we learned to fly. Wilbur and Orville Wright are considered the founders of modern aviation.
What are the 4 principles of flight?
These same four forces help an airplane fly. The four forces are lift, thrust, drag, and weight. As a Frisbee flies through the air, lift holds it up.
What are the 4 categories of aircraft?
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Airplane category:
  • single-engine land class.
  • multi-engine land class.
  • single-engine sea class.
  • multi-engine sea class.
What means CRM in aviation?
Crew Resource Management. CRM is the effective use of all available resources for flight crew personnel to assure a safe and efficient operation, reducing error, avoiding stress and increasing efficiency.
What are the 3 major threats in air transport?
The air cargo system is vulnerable to several security threats including potential plots to place explosives aboard aircraft; illegal shipments of hazardous materials; criminal activities such as smuggling and theft; and potential hijackings and sabotage by persons with access to aircraft.
What is risk ICAO?
ICAO Safety Management Systems (SMS) Course. 5. Definition of risk. ❖Risk – The assessment, expressed in terms of predicted probability and severity, of the consequence(s) of a hazard taking as reference the worst foreseeable situation.
What voltage is aircraft?
The aircraft uses both 115 Volts AC and 28 volts DC power. AC electrical power is provided by two engine-driven generation systems. Each system includes an integrated drive generator (IDG) and a generator control unit (GCU).
Why is 400 Hz used on aircraft?
With 400 Hz, airplanes require fewer generators or alternators to produce a sufficient amount of power. This reduces their total weight, thereby making it easier for airplanes to take off. If airplanes used a lower power frequency, they would require more generators or alternators, thus increasing their total weight.
What is aircraft busbar?
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A bus bar is used as a terminal in the aircraft electrical system to connect the main electrical system to the equipment using electricity as a source of power. This simplifies the wiring system and provides a common point from which voltage can be distributed throughout the system.
What are the 6 elements of safety?
6 Core Elements of Successful Safety Programs
What is FOD on a runway?
As defined in AC 150/5210-24, Airport Foreign Object Debris ( FOD ) Management, FOD is any object, live or not, located in an inappropriate location in the airport environment that has the capacity to injure airport or air carrier personnel and damage aircraft.
How can we prevent airplane accidents?
Ways To Reduce The Chances Of An Aviation Accident
  1. Fly on larger aircraft. ...
  2. Choose non-stop flights. ...
  3. Store only light items in the overhead bin. ...
  4. Review the safety features of the plane. ...
  5. Pay attention to the flight attendants. ...
  6. Avoid unbuckling your seatbelt or wandering around the cabin without need.
What checks are done before a flight?
These are the A-check, B-check, C-check, and D-check. The A-check is the least invasive and occurs about every 500 flying hours. The D-check is extremely thorough and occurs every six years or so. The D-check is so invasive and expensive that many times the airline just retires the airplane instead.
How long should a preflight take ? 
External pre-flight - normally around 5-10 minutes. This is a pretty thorough and structured check of the entire airframe. Internal pre-flight (pre-engine start) - anything from 2-3 mins when solo to 10 or so mins when new pax are on board. Take as much time as you need to be 100% comfortable.
What are the top 8 frustrations in aviation today?
Top 8 Challenges of the Aviation Industry: The Pre-COVID Era
  • #1 Fuel Efficiency. ...
  • #2 Global Economy. ...
  • #3 Passenger Comfort and Experience. ...
  • #4 Airline Infrastructure. ...
  • #5 Global Congestion. ...
  • #6 Technological Advancements. ...
  • #7 Terrorism. ...
  • #8 Climate Change.
What is the octane rating of jet fuel?
The octane ratings of AVGAS, a gasoline-based fuel, are usually either 91 or 100 (lean mixture) and 96 or 130 (rich mixture). The octane rating of jet fuel is much lower, around 15 – this is much more like automotive diesel and thus much more resistant to detonating due to sparks or compression
What are the grades of aviation fuel?
Aviation fuel grades
Fuel typesFuel gradesComments
Aviation gasolines Avgas 100/130 A leaded fuel.
  Avgas 100LL A low-lead version of Avgas 100.
  UL 91 and UL 94 A version of Avgas 100LL with no lead.
Civil jet fuels Jet A/A-1 Jet A is only available in the USA, however, Jet A-1 is widely available outside of the country.


What is the lowest aviation fuel octane rating?
UL94 has a minimum Motor octane number (MON, which is the octane rating employed for grading aviation gasoline) of 94.0. 100LL has a minimum MON of 99.6.
What type of fuel is aviation fuel?
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They are kerosene-based (JP-8 and Jet A-1) for gas turbine-powered aircraft. Piston-engined aircraft use gasoline and those with diesel engines may use jet fuel (kerosene).
Can aviation fuel be used in cars?
Using leaded avgas in a modern car would ruin components such as the catalytic converter. Conversely, Jet-A wouldn't work in a gas engine. It would be like putting diesel fuel in your gas-powered car, it just won't run.
What is the difference between jet fuel and aviation fuel?
AVGAS, or aviation gasoline, is used for piston-engine aircraft. These types of aircraft fly through the rotation of the propellers which generate the thrust. While Jet Fuel is used for aircraft with turbine-engine jets. These fly with the thrust of expelled air.